Laparoscopic Surgery

By Dr. Markos Karavitakis, Specialized Surgeon in Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery, Vice President of the European Association of Urology (EAU) and Director of the Center for Advanced Laparoscopic, Robotic and Endoscopic Urology Surgery Central Urology.

The history of laparoscopic surgery

The rise of laparoscopic surgery stands out as one of the most pivotal advancements in surgical science over the past century. This minimally invasive technique has transformed the landscape of surgery, granting patients the option to undergo procedures with less discomfort, quicker recovery periods, and minimal scarring. In contrast to traditional open surgeries necessitating large incisions, laparoscopy introduced the notion of conducting intricate surgeries through small openings. This breakthrough not only revolutionized patients' surgical experiences but also spurred surgeons to cultivate new proficiencies and adapt to the distinctive demands of this progressive approach.

The origins of laparoscopy can be traced back to the early 20th century, with notable milestones shaping its progress. The inaugural documented laparoscopic procedure took place in 1901, when German surgeon Georg Kelling employed an ancient Greek laparoscope to investigate the abdominal cavity of a live animal. However, it was not until the 1970s that laparoscopy gained substantial traction. Breakthroughs in optical fibers and enhanced optical systems in that era paved the way for significant advancements. In 1987, French surgeon Philippe Mouret executed the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy (gall bladder removal), demonstrating the viability and advantages of laparoscopic surgeries in humans. This pioneering leap has been the engine behind the rapid expansion of laparoscopy across various surgical domains, including urology, enabling surgeons to carry out complex procedures with heightened precision and superior patient outcomes.


The entry of laparoscopic surgery in urology

The history of laparoscopy in urology has been a remarkable journey that greatly revolutionized urological surgical approaches and techniques. While the beginnings of laparoscopy trace back to the early 20th century, it was in the latter half of the century that notable progress was achieved in its application to urological procedures. A pivotal moment occurred in 1991 when Dr. Ralph Clayman performed the first laparoscopic urological operation, a laparoscopic radical nephrectomy, highlighting the feasibility and advantages of minimally invasive approaches.

In 1997, the first Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy was carried out by R. Gaston, revolutionizing the treatment of prostate cancer by offering reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times compared to traditional open surgery. This procedure quickly gained popularity as the preferred method for managing prostate cancer.

Another significant milestone in the advancement of laparoscopic urology occurred in 2000 when Dr. Schulam and his team performed the first laparoscopic radical cystectomy to treat bladder cancer. The use of laparoscopic techniques in cystectomy resulted in smaller incisions, decreased postoperative pain, and faster patient recovery, enabling individuals to resume their daily activities sooner.

The advancement of robotic laparoscopy represented a significant progression in the field of laparoscopic surgery. The robotic platform made it easier for surgeons, even those with limited experience, to utilize laparoscopic tools effectively, thereby enabling them to offer their patients the benefits of laparoscopic procedures. The history of laparoscopy in urology is characterized by innovation, commitment, and evolution. From the early adoption of laparoscopic nephrectomies to the introduction of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and cystectomy, this minimally invasive approach has substantially enhanced patient outcomes, minimized complications and risks, and transformed the landscape of urological surgery. As technology advances, laparoscopy remains a vital aspect of urology, holding the promise of further enhancements and expansions.


What is the procedure of laparoscopic surgery?

Laparoscopic surgery, also referred to as minimally invasive surgery, is a sophisticated technique that involves conducting surgeries through small incisions using specialized surgical instruments and an optical camera system.

The surgical procedure commences with the administration of general anesthesia to the patient. Following sedation, small incisions are made at specific locations on the body, depending on the nature of the operation. Thin tubes known as "trocars" are inserted through these incisions. These trocars serve as entry points for the slender laparoscopic surgical tools required for the operation. Subsequently, carbon dioxide is introduced into the abdominal cavity to create a pneumoperitoneum. This process separates the abdominal wall from the abdominal organs, establishing a clean and well-lit workspace conducive for performing the procedure.

Next, a laparoscope is inserted – a slim, elongated tube housing a high-resolution 4K camera that provides 3D imaging at the tip. The camera captures live images of the surgical site, which are then displayed on a screen in the operating room to assist the surgeon visually throughout the procedure. Following this, laparoscopic instruments are introduced to carry out essential steps of the surgery, such as tissue transection, suture placement, and organ removal.

The coordination between the screen display and the surgical maneuvers within the abdomen is crucial in laparoscopic surgery. The instruments' movements on the screen closely mimic the real-time movements inside the body, requiring surgeons to possess exceptional laparoscopic dexterity for precise actions.

Upon achieving the surgical objectives, the instruments are removed, and the pneumoperitoneum is released. The small incisions are closed using either sutures or skin staples. Due to the minimal tissue trauma associated with these small incisions, patients typically experience reduced post-operative pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery compared to conventional open surgery.

In summary, laparoscopic surgery is revolutionizing surgical practices by providing patients with the advantages of minimally invasive techniques, improved precision, and faster recovery times.

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What are the advantages of laparoscopic surgery?

Laparoscopic surgery has demonstrated substantial benefits for patients: 

Minimally Invasive: Laparoscopic procedures necessitate only small incisions, minimizing damage to surrounding tissues and reducing post-operative discomfort.

Faster Recovery: Patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery typically have shorter hospital stays and recover more swiftly compared to those undergoing open surgery.

Reduced Blood Loss:  Laparoscopic methods often lead to decreased blood loss during surgery, lowering the risks associated with bleeding and its adverse effects.

Reduced postoperative pain and decreased analgesic use:  Reduced postoperative pain is crucial for both physical and mental recovery following surgery. It not only promotes faster healing but also minimizes the need for analgesic medications, thereby avoiding their adverse effects. 

Enhanced Optical Precision and Surgical Accuracy: Utilizing ultra-high resolution 3D cameras in surgery provides surgeons with exceptional visibility of the operative site, enabling them to perform more precise procedures and achieve better surgical outcomes. 

Decreased Risk of Infection:  By making smaller incisions and minimizing exposure of internal organs, there is a reduced likelihood of surgical site infections occurring.

Quicker Return to Normal Activities: With less invasive techniques and smaller incisions, patients can resume their daily routines sooner after surgery.

Lower Hernia Risk: Laparoscopic surgery's use of smaller incisions diminishes the chances of hernias developing at the surgical site.

Minimized Scarring Effects:  The use of small incisions results in less noticeable scarring, which improves the aesthetic appearance post-surgery.

Enhanced Overall Quality of Life: Faster recovery, decreased pain, and improved cosmetic outcomes collectively contribute to an overall improved quality of life for patients.

The various advantages of laparoscopic surgery highlight its pivotal role in contemporary surgical management, offering patients safe and efficient treatment options.


Expansion of Laparoscopic Surgery in Urological Diseases

The favorable outcomes of laparoscopic surgery have led to its widespread adoption in treating numerous urological conditions. It has become a primary treatment choice due to its efficacy and safety profile.

Prostate CancerLaparoscopic radical prostatectomy (Read More) is a well-established technique for treating prostate cancer, has shown to provide significantly reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stays (typically 1-2 days), and quicker return to daily activities compared to open surgery. Additionally, laparoscopic approaches have lower risks of complications and the need for blood transfusion, resulting in optimal functional outcomes for continence and erectile function. 

Kidney TumorsLaparoscopic nephrectomy and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (Read More) are the preferred methods for removing kidney tumors due to their benefits, including less post-operative pain, shorter hospital stays (usually 2-3 days), and smaller incisions leading to improved aesthetics. The low conversion rate to open surgery (1% to 5%) underscores the success of laparoscopic procedures.

Bladder CancerLaparoscopic cystectomy (Read More) for bladder cancer offers advantages such as reduced blood loss, fewer post-operative complications, and shorter hospital stays compared to open surgery. Data suggests that approximately 70-80% of patients experience quicker recovery times and a faster return to daily activities.

Renal Obstructive DiseasesLaparoscopic pyeloplasty and laparoscopic repair of ureteral strictures are the preferred methods for treating ureteral-renal obstructive diseases, boasting success rates of over 90%. Patients typically have an average hospital stay of 1-2 days and quicker recovery compared to open surgery.

Adrenal TumorsLaparoscopic adrenalectomy typically results in an average hospital stay of about 2-3 days, reduced post-operative pain, and a faster return to work. The success rate for tumor removal is approximately 95%, with a lower overall complication rate compared to open surgery.

Kidney and ureteral lithiasisLaparoscopic pyelolithotomy and ureterolithotomy are utilized for the removal of ureteral stones in cases where alternative techniques are not suitable or when there are underlying conditions (e.g., other diseases) that make the laparoscopic approach preferable. This method presents a low risk of complications, short hospitalization duration (typically under 2 days), and a quicker return to normal activities. The success rate for stone removal is estimated to be between 85-95%.

VaricoceleLaparoscopic ligation of the internal spermatic vein  is the preferred method for addressing varicocele, a common issue that can impact male fertility. This technique provides substantial benefits including reduced post-operative discomfort, immediate resumption of work (often within a week), and high patient satisfaction.

Prostatic hyperplasia: Laparoscopic adenomectomy is the surgical procedure employed for managing prostatic hyperplasia, a prevalent condition that significantly affects men's quality of life. Laparoscopic adenomatectomy is recommended for cases involving large prostates and is known for its exceptional outcomes in restoring urination with minimal risk of complications and side effects.

Pelvic organ prolapseLaparoscopic sphincterotomy is the laparoscopic intervention used for correcting the prolapse of pelvic organs like cystic hernias and rectal hernias. This advanced laparoscopic technique is both safe and effective, offering patients a faster recovery period, reduced pain, and an enhanced quality of life.

These instances showcase the efficacy of laparoscopy in treating a variety of urological disorders, ultimately leading to improved patient outcomes and a better quality of life. 


What are the possible complications and risks of laparoscopic surgery

Laparoscopic surgery has emerged as the preferred method for both patients and surgeons to conduct operations. The combination of favorable outcomes, minimal discomfort, and enhanced recovery has become a crucial factor in its selection. Nonetheless, like all medical procedures, laparoscopic surgery carries potential risks and complications that necessitate awareness to develop and implement effective practices for their mitigation and immediate resolution. Risks and complications associated with laparoscopic procedures include: 

  • Pain: The presence of air in the abdomen, required for creating pneumoperitoneum, may lead to post-operative discomfort. Nevertheless, these symptoms typically diminish within a few days.
  • Infection: Infection at the incision sites or within the abdominal cavity is a relatively uncommon complication due to the small incisions and reduced exposure of intra-abdominal organs to the external environment. 
  • Bleeding: Laparoscopic surgery is linked to lower blood loss owing to pneumoperitoneum, improved visibility of the surgical area, and enhanced precision during surgical procedures. Nonetheless, as with any surgical intervention, there is a slight inherent risk of bleeding.
  • Injury to Adjacent Organs: Injury to nearby organs can occur during the insertion of trocars into the patient's abdomen or during the introduction and manipulation of surgical instruments. Nevertheless, this complication is exceedingly rare, and the expertise of surgeons combined with advanced imaging technologies aids in minimizing this risk.
  • Thrombosis Risk: Prolonged immobility during and after surgery, along with the presence of air in the abdomen, can result in the development of blood clots in the legs (deep vein thrombosis) that may travel to the lungs, leading to pulmonary embolism. Prompt mobilization and appropriate preventive measures typically help minimize this risk.
  • Anesthesia Risks: Anesthesia, like any surgery, carries potential risks such as allergic reactions, breathing difficulties, and adverse drug responses.
  • Conversion to Open Surgery: Occasionally, laparoscopic procedures may need to be converted to open surgery due to unforeseen complications or challenges, potentially resulting in extended recovery times and an increased infection risk.
  • Pneumoperitoneum Complications: The use of air to inflate the abdomen during laparoscopic surgery might cause shoulder pain or discomfort post-operation.

Incidence of Complications: While these complications are plausible, the overall occurrence of serious issues is generally low when experienced surgeons perform laparoscopic surgery with appropriate patient selection.